Bio-fuels

BIODIESEL


K.C. Das and Senthil Chinnasamy aerate algae, a potential crop for biodiesel, at the UGA Biorefinery. Algae Holds Promise As Biofuel, Georgia Faces, July 2008 >>
Biodiesel is a diesel fuel substitute made by reacting an alcohol with vegetable oil, animal fat or recycled cooking grease. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification which produces methyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerine.

Biodiesel is not straight vegetable oil, animal fat or yellow grease used in a diesel engine. Biodiesel starts with these materials, but they are then modified to make a fuel with properties more like those of petroleum-based diesel fuels. Modern diesel engines cannot tolerate the high viscosity (thickness) of fats and oils in their native state. Biodiesel addresses this issue, and it is these methyl esters that can be used as a safe alternative to petroleum diesel fuel.

BIODIESEL FINDS HOME IN BACKYARDS, FUELING STATION


Biodiesel workshop attendees board a bus at UGA's Biomass Processing Pilot Plant. The bus is fueled on biodiesel, which can be made from various agricultural products like rendered chicken fat and soybean oil and is then blended with traditional diesel.


Workshop attendees learn to make biodiesel. Above they are seen in one of the earlier stages of making biodiesel, when the glycerine is removed.


Dan Geller, who has been researching biodiesel at UGA for 10 years, stands next to the first biodiesel pump to open in Athens, Ga.

From Georgia Faces
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
18 May 2006
By Stephanie Schupska

The biodiesel topic is hitting the lips of those working in places ranging from labs to government regulations offices. As fuel prices continue to mount, many Americans have started hunting ways to make transportation more economical.

And that includes the production of biodiesel.

"Biodiesel has true scale-ability," said Rob Del Bueno of the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy. "It can be made in a multimillion-gallon tank or in a 2-liter bottle in a kitchen if done carefully."

Del Bueno knows this firsthand. After college, he promoted a band that played gigs wherever they could get them. To save money, they converted the tour van to run on vegetable oil taken straight from the fryers at the bars where they played.

Del Bueno was hooked, not on the band, but on the fuel they used. He started tearing apart engines, making his own biodiesel and running his car on it. He then started making it for his friends. After an article in a local newspaper, the Environmental Projection Agency and the Internal Revenue Service also got interested, and he was audited and slammed with fees.

From the curious to the Georgia legislature, interest in biodiesel is picking up steam. According to Ryan Adolphson, director of the University of Georgia's Biomass Processing Pilot Plant Facilities, from 1995 to 2005, four Georgia bills on biomass were introduced. In 2006 alone, at least eight bills came before the state legislature pertaining to biomass energy in general with six bills directly targeting biodiesel.

In fact, Georgia Senate Bill 636 that passed in 2006 makes it illegal for someone to produce biodiesel for resale if that biodiesel does not meet standard specifications. And testing for those specifications is expensive.

A license for a small biodiesel producer, who is someone who produces less than 250,000 gallons a year, costs $2,500 per year. That doesn't include the costs for extensive tests to make sure the product is engine and road-ready.

"It's really easy to make biodiesel. To make it right is really hard," said Dan Geller, who is on the UGA engineering department faculty and has been researching biodiesel for the past 10 years.

According to Dan Walsh of National Tribology Services Inc., those hoping to produce biodiesel for resale should expect to ask for a loan between $1 million and $2.5 million just to cover startup costs, and then expect to pay between $800 and $1,300 for each complete test a lab runs on each sample from each batch they produce.

"There's a lot of misinformation out there," Greg Hopkins said of the biodiesel movement. "It's a chemical manufacturing operation from the largest scale to the smallest. You have to factor agriculture on one end and fuel on the other and regulations on both. The bottom line is that it's hard, but it's incredibly rewarding if you do it."

Hopkins is a biodiesel producer and owns U.S. Biofuels in Rome, Ga. It's his fuel that's flowing through the first biodiesel pump in Athens, Ga., which opened Tuesday, May 16, at the price of $2.92 per gallon.

As the new industry takes its first few steps, "the biomass industry needs to work together and be directly involved in the legislative process," Adolphson said. "This means that agriculture and industry have to determine together what realistic goals and targets can be achieved."

This includes everyone from people who want to run biodiesel in their own tractors to large producers, he said.

Stephanie Schupska is a news editor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.